By Mr Hamou Ghanem
Woman in Islam and ancient civilization and reiligions
studying the conditions of women in the ancient civilizations and religions that preceded Islam will help us to see how Islam has singled the woman out and how Islam deemed her higher than any other religion or civilization did . The difficult life that woman had been put to , the evidence ,the thought and the way that people treated women , if compared with what Islam ordained concerning women rights, will take us to final fair conclusion
Woman has suffered not only in the communities she lived but also when nations take the place of each other , the prejudice and injustices that women suffered ensued in an inferior and lower position . Hammurabi law oppressively accused her of things that she didn't commit . Most shockingly, Man was not to be sentenced to death if he killed a woman .
In India , Manou law deemed the woman as an item of the property that a man possessed , this item of property was to be inherited , she had no the right to be educated , she was nothing but a tool of sex for men , when her husband died she was to be burnt with him alive in the same place .
In China woman was a considered as a sinister sign that heralded misery , so it was incumbent on her not to go out to look at a human face
InGreece , woman was considered impure , in the ancient Greek poetry she was portrayed as a creature with a dog's mind and with cunning subtle morals . The Greek orator, Demostein said " we took women as prostitutes for sex delight , concubines for our daily health and wives to give us children
According to the Roman Law , woman was an impure dirty creature , it was tabooed for her to approach a temple, so she was not qualified to enter the paradise . Her femininity , according to the then law, disqualified her.
The distorted Torah blames on her the consequences of eating from the forbidden tree ; moreover this canon considered woman as property and that she was to supercede all her rights to her husband
Most strikingly , the children of Israel used to give girls as oblation to be burnt just to please the kings.. The Arab , in the pre-Islamic period used to bury baby girls alive as they thought that woman may draw shame to them . God says in the holy Quran denouncing this what could be translated " When news is brought to one of them, of (the birth of) a female (child), his face darkens, and he is filled with inward grief "
Woman in Islam
The Holy Quran corrected the human thought as regard the woman , that thought that imbued the ancient human culture , Quran centered some of its interest on the humanity of woman , God says in the holy Quran what means"
" Omankind reverence your guardian Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, his mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women; reverence God, through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs (that bore you): for God ever watches over you. " SURA 4: NISA 1"
Moreover , the Holy Quran considered the woman equal to man in her duties towards God and the ensuing responsibilities. God says in the holy Quran what means " Every soul will be (held) in pledge for its deeds."
Unlike the Holy Book , woman in the Holy Quran is innocent of the crime of enticing Adam of eating from the banned tree , both of them were ordered to avoid that tree , Satan whispered to them both ,God says in the Holy Quran what means " - Then did Satan make them slip from the (Garden), and get them out of the state (of felicity) in which They had been. " Also both of them repented together ; The Holy Quran says " They said: Our Lord We have wronged our own souls: if thou forgive us not and bestow not upon us thy mercy, we shall Certainly be lost.
Since the very beginning of creation , woman and man were both individually and psychologically equal , no one to excel the other but by doing righteousness . woman in Quran is not a dependant entity but she is completely independent enjoying the same legality that man enjoys and also she is to refrain herself from what man is to refrain from himself from on the basis of the Holy Quran instructions . Woman is no longer an associate with the devil nor is she a corporal tool of sex . She is equal to man in every thing except those which regards her biological feminine nature .
In Islam she has the right of the honourable life , she has the right to learn , possess , choose her husband , raise her children , inherit property and work . No Monasticism in Islam , no distinction between a father and a mother , both are to receive the same reverence and respect from their sons , God says in the Holy Quran what means " We have enjoined on man kindness to parents"
In Islam , it is one of the prophet habits (sunaha) to receive a newly born baby girl with happiness and giving a banquet as a sign of happiness and thanking God, prophet Mohummed asked his companions to name the baby girls with the most promising fine names . Islam renounced and condemned the way that ancient nations in India ,china and the Arab peninsula treated woman..
Islam made it incumbent on the family to let woman learn , prophet Mohummed says " seeking science is a religious obligation"
Some of Moslem scholars recommended some arenas of educations for women and that why some non-Moslems scholars , being obfuscated by this , could not understand the matter . They have delineated this attitude as an ambience controlled with censorship only on woman , an error that disfigured education in Islam . Nothing could be better evidence to the goodness of woman education than the view of Islam to woman . Islam , when talking about woman education . bears in mind that woman undergoes menstruation , postpartum period and her duties towards her husband and sons .
In Islam marriage is organized in terms with some Ayas and Hadiths .Islam , though divine revelation ,show the relation between man and woman in the family considering ita small unit in the society , Islam laid the foundation of Moslem society on many bases ; among these is the Moslem family . In Islam , woman is considered the cornerstone of the family . Woman's honour should be highly considered when prefiguring an Islamic family .God says in the holy Quran what means
ye who believe ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will. nor should ye treat them with harshness, ………………….live with them on a footing of kindness and equity.
Prophet Mohummed said " The best of you is the best to his wife and I am the best of you to my wives …the generous are those who honour their wives and women are offended by fraudulent or mean people Islam Has put an upper limit to polygamy and ,despite allowing divorce , Islam doesn't favour it but rather put some restriction , among these are the mutual consent and consultation .Like consultation in the political system that guarantees success in administering all the internal and external affairs , mutual consultation in the family does too . Marriage in Islam is not only concerned with procreation but also with mercy , peace and cordiality in the family . The best description that portrays the successful marriage is the example that metaphorically set in the Holy Quran " they are your garments and ye are their garments. "
Islam supreme end is building a family which is considered the first cell of the social body of the society , So Islam is keen on the family structure by strengthening the connections and ties inside the family . Motherhood occupied the central interest of Islam in this connection as it is the role of the mother to care about the baby since the very beginning till he became independent.
To fulfill her duties ,Islam didn't make it incumbent on woman to be the breadwinner of the family and laid it on the shoulder of the husband to be so . So man is responsible and that why the Islamic law made her share in the inheritance as half as the man ; According to this law woman should understand that she should not overlook her duties towards her family . It was Islam that lavishes woman with much care entailing the society to care about her taking into consideration the biological changes that she suffer during her lifetime such as confinement and menstruation
Women judicial right :
In Islam woman is completely free when dealing with her property and she has the right to sue her husband (if he does something wrong to her ) , contrary to most ancient world culture , woman in Islam has the right to give her witnesses as regards some cases , despite being much criticized , woman share in inheritance is significant , man is the breadwinner in Islam so he is to take as twice as woman does . As to some cases that need the witnesses of two women , it is not according to her biological difference between man and woman that Islam make the witnesses of two women equal to one man ; it is because the passionate nature of woman that Islam made so .
The civil and political rights of women
Woman in Islam has the right to practice any job on condition that she abide by the Islamic instructions ; Islam only stipulates women chastity and to be away from any suspicious social relations to maintain her honour and to protect Islam from moral corruption
The Holy Quran
The prophet Hadiths
The story of civilization
Woman through history
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