By Feras Nour Alhak
In the Quran, the old rulers of Egypt have been mentioned and the Glorious Quran makes difference between them. When it narrates about Egypt rulers at the age of Moses, peace upon him; they are not called with any name other than the word" pharos". This is in more than sixty Ayah(verse) like the following Ayah:
And(remember) when we did deliver you from pharaoh's folk, who were afflicting you with dreadful torment slaying your sons and sparing your women: that was a tremendous trial from your Lord. (Al-Baqarah) between them. But when it narrates about Egypt rulers at the age of Joseph, peace upon him; they are not called with any name other than the word "king".
And the king said: I saw in a dream, seven fat kine which seven lean were eating, and seven green ears of corn and seven dry. (Surat Joseph).
And Allah says:
And the king said: Bring him unto me. And when the messenger came unto him, he (Joseph) said: Return unto thy lord and ask him what was the case of the women cut their hands. My Lord knoweth thee guile.
The mentioning of the old rulers of Egypt in the Torah.
In Torah, there is no difference between the rulers of Egypt at the age of the prophet Moses and the rulers at the age of the prophet Joseph, they are called pharaoh without any difference between them.
In Torah (Exodus) chapter 9(13). And the LORD said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and stand before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me.
For I will at this time send all my plagues upon thine heart, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people; that thou mayest know that there is none like me in all the earth.
But when it (Torah) narrates about the ruler of Egypt At the age of Joseph in the Genesis(chapter 41):
And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants.
A portrait of the clause of the pharaoh, the ruler of Egypt
38: And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find such a one as this is, a man in whom the Spirit of God is?
39: And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Forasmuch as God hath shewed thee all this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou art:
40: Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled.
The ancient Egyptian civilization.
The ancient Egyptian civilization was still unknown. No one knew any thin about it except some obvious monuments most of which have plunged into the sand of the desert in Giza, Aswan and Luxor. So had been the case until Gan Franso Shmbelion, a French scientist broke the symbols of the ancient Egyptian language using Rosetta stone which was discovered during the French campaign on Egypt. A text in two language and three writings has been carved out of it: the ancient Egyptian one and it was written in Hieroglyph which means the sacred writing because it was specialized for writing inside the temples,Dimutiqi which means the popular writing and the Greek language . Through comparing between them , he succeeded to break the codes of the Hieroglyphic language . That discovery led to other monumental discoveries and recognizing the life of Pharaohs and ancient Egyptian.
The word of Pharaohs.
The word Pharaohs means The Great House in the old Egyptian language which had been used after that as a title for Egyptian rulers . That title was not discovered until from the beginning of the eighteenth dynasty i.e. (1539Bc) on. That means that all that period preceded that date , the title of the Egyptian rulers was The King and there is no disagreement about that even at the time of Hyksos occupation of Egypt (whose name means the king of the sponsors in the old Egyptian language) from 1648 to 1540 BC or before that period.
Joseph, peace be upon him traveling to Egypt.
It is agreeable that Joseph going to Egypt and his reign had been before the mission of Moses, peace be upon him. This is because Allah says narrating what was said by a believer one of Pharaoh's folk: And verily Joseph brought you of
brought you of old clear proofs, yet ye ceased not to be in doubt concerning what be brought you till, when he died, he said : Allah will not send any messenger after him. Thus Allah deceiveth him who is a prodigal, a doubter.(Surat Ghafir).
The Egyptian said that Allah would not send a messenger because the long period after him in when Allah did not send a messenger in contrast to the prophets of the children of Israel who were sent by Allah throughout short periods of time. Since Moses mission was at the age of the Pharaoh of Egypt (Ramsees the second) as it was clear in a previous research, thus undoubtedly; Joseph was in Egypt before the age of the eighteenth dynasty i.e. the period in which the Egyptian rulers were called kings regardless of being Egyptians or they were Hyksos , as all people called them kings.
A portrait of a block of stone discovered in the area of Shatea el-Gazira in upper Egypt handling a starvation happened at the age of the king Zoser of the third dynasty and lasted for seven years.
The stone of Gazirat el- Shatea .
A stone dating back to the third dynasty and exactly to the age of king Zoser was discovered. The following text was carved out of it:( king Zoser asked the gods to end the starvation that struck Egypt and lasted for seven years etc…). I believe that Joseph ruled Egypt at the age of king Zoser , at the time of the third dynasty because it was credited that this starvation lasted for seven years . It was also hinted that the ruler of Egypt was the king not the Pharaoh and this is in accordance with the glorious Quran.
The Quran miracle about The Unknown.
The Quran makes different between two important ages in the history of Egypt which are the age of the pre-Pharaohs i.e. before the eighteenth dynasty who called their rulers the kings and the age of the post-Pharaohs who called their rulers the Pharaohs and this started from the eighteenth dynasty. That is in contrast to the Torah that has not made difference between the two ages and the two titles: in Torah, Pharaoh is a title for the rulers of Egypt whether at the time of the prophet Joseph or at the time of the prophet Moses and this contradicts the modern science.
As for the glorious Quran, it was and is still the book of Allah at which falsehood cannot come from before it or behind it and which does not have any contradiction.
Allah says:"will they not then ponder on the Qur'an? If it had been from other than Allah they would have found therein much incongruity."
British encyclopedia http://p2 . www. britannica. Com/eb/article-9059581/pharaoh