Quran Punches Holes in Atheism
The Unlimited God’s Power, Science and Intelligence
The earth, the moon and the Sun
By: Salama Abdelhady, Ph. D.
Professor of Energy Systems, Energy Engineering College in Aswan,
South Valley University
Quran is the Perfect revealed Book from God to His Last Prophet; Mohamed. We read in the Quran the following four successive verses that form a global scientific view of the God’s unlimited power and intelligence in the universe. We see a miraculous portrait that describes scientifically the orbiting of the earth, the moon and the sun and shows how they are perfectly created and tightly controlled in every moment by God’s wisdom and power.
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YUSUFALI: And a Sign for them is the Night: We withdraw there from the Day, and behold they are plunged in darkness; And the sun runs his course for a period determined for him: that is the decree of (Him), the Exalted in Might, the All-Knowing. And the Moon,- We have measured for her mansions (both look as mansion-mate) till she returns like the old (and withered) lower part of a date-stalk. It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law).
PICKTHAL: A token unto them is night. We strip it of the day, and lo! they are in darkness. And the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise. : And for the moon We have appointed mansions (both look as mansion-mate) till she return like an old shrivelled palm-leaf. It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law).
SHAKIR: And a sign to them is the night: We draw forth from it the day, then lo! they are in the dark; And the sun runs on to a term appointed for it; that is the ordinance of the Mighty, the Knowing. And (as for) the moon, We have ordained for it stages till it becomes again as an old dry palm branch. Neither is it allowable to the sun that it should not overtake the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day; and every one floats on or in its own orbit.
Teams of modern astronomers have been studying very small pieces of the universe to discover specific facts in these pieces. But in no more than 50 words, God who created and controls such perfect universe shows how He is able also to describe miraculously such complete portrait of the whole universe. The verses outlines the coordination of succession of days and nights, spinning or rotation of the earth, orbiting motions of the sun to an end, the characteristics of the orbiting motion of the moon, the nonintersecting orbits of the earth, moon and sun, the spontaneous and stabilized motion of every thing in the heavens, and other secrets that may not yet be discovered. Such miraculous views were revealed to the prophet of Islam since more than 1400 years. In such time, no one knows any scientific fact or secrets regarding such orbits, stars or planets and heavens.
Reading these verses, any human should think how such magnificent universe is created and controlled. So, Muslim Scientists were motivated by the verses of Quran and thought the secrets of the universe during the golden age of Islam. So, they initiated the scientific cultures and technologies in every field according to these God’s orders:
YUSUFALI: Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day,- there are indeed Signs for men of understanding,-
PICKTHAL: Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of night and day are tokens (of His Sovereignty) for men of understanding,
SHAKIR: Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand.
Of course, these verses motivate our thinking to understand the greatness and perfectness of our universe and hence the greatness and perfectness of the Creator and Controller of this universe. This portrait motivates us to look at the sun in the day and the moon in the night. We may imagine both have the same size. However, the sun’s size is 64 millions as much as the moon’s size. But the distance of the sun is some million-kilometers from the earth and the moon is some thousand-kilometers only from earth. These verses guide us to ask: Who arranged such uniqueness of the apparent sizes of the moon and the sun and the found uniqueness in every thing in the universe? Who arranged and finely adjust uniqueness of the day’s duration determined by complete revolution of the earth around itself as 24 hours in all seasons during the whole life of the earth? Who arranged year’s duration determined by a complete revolution of the earth around the sun as 365.25 days during the whole life of the earth? Who arranged such steady orbits of the sun, the moon and the earth? Who arranged such uniqueness and stabilization in every thing in this universe? Such uniqueness and stability cannot be arranged by themselves. These verses storm our brains to find the answers of these wonders. However, God gives the answer as He describes Himself in the Quran as the Wonderful Originator of the heavens and earth.
YUSUFALI: To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: How can He have a son when He hath no consort? He created all things, and He hath full knowledge of all things.
PICKTHAL: The Originator of the heavens and the earth! How can He have a child, when there is for Him no consort, when He created all things and is Aware of all things?
SHAKIR: Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth! How could He have a son when He has no consort, and He (Himself) created everything, and He is the Knower of all things.
Now, we may look at this portrait which is drawn by four corners or verses from the 36th chapter or a surah of the Quran called Yasin. The first Verse describes the process of rolling of the night over Al-Nahar (the time of sun’s shining or the day-time). It is known now that at any moment or timing one half of the earth is covered or shines by sun rays and the other half is in darkness or away from the sun or any other star. It is known now also that the whole universe is in dark but the stars, as the sun, are shining as glowing points floating in night or darkness. In the day time, one half of the earth is shining by reflection and absorption of sunrays. This verse states that as the earth is rolling, the darkness of the universe is creeping on the shining half of the earth. So, this verse expresses such newly discovered facts that the whole universe is in darkness and that the earth is a rolling sphere by offering such miraculous description of how such darkness of the universe is stripping out the sun rays, or El-Nahar, during rolling of the earth to replace it. Such meanings are assured also in many other verses in the Quran as the following verse:
After we discovered that the earth’s rolling about its axis is done once every 24 hours. We have no idea regarding how it is done. What is the force that drives such succession to be so neatly adjusted? Any watch may mistake the timing by error of some percentage. It is known now that the earth is spinning around an oblique axis with respect to its plane around the sun, it is moving also around the sun, and the solar group including the earth and sun is moving or rotating inside a galaxy. But the time earth’s revolution or spinning is firmly adjusted or fixed. If we look at the satellites which were sent to rotate around the earth, its size is not more than the size of a baby-car. However, its orbit around the earth should be daily corrected by very complicated navigation systems and methods of control. But the earth is self adjusted and id does not need such human adjustment. Humans are disabled to perform such adjustment. God states our disability to perform such adjustment in the following verses of the Quran:
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YUSUFALI: Say: See ye? If Allah were to make the night perpetual over you to the Day of Judgment, what god is there other than Allah, who can give you enlightenment? Will ye not then hearken? YUSUFALI: Say: See ye? If Allah were to make the day perpetual over you to the Day of Judgment, what god is there other than Allah, who can give you a night in which ye can rest? Will ye not then see?
PICKTHAL: Say: Have ye thought, if Allah made night everlasting for you till the Day of Resurrection, who is a god beside Allah who could bring you light? Will ye not then hear? Say: Have ye thought, if Allah made day everlasting for you till the Day of Resurrection, who is a god beside Allah who could bring you night wherein ye rest? Will ye not then see?
SHAKIR: Say: Tell me, if Allah were to make the night to continue incessantly on you till the day of resurrection, who is the god besides Allah that could bring you light? Do you not then hear? Say: Tell me, if Allah were to make the day to continue incessantly on you till the day of resurrection, who is the god besides Allah that could bring you the night in which you take rest? Do you not then see?
What may happen if the earth has natural errors due to its continuous motions, irregular shape, and disturbances by global storms, sun’s storms, and any other factor? We should expect some delays or disturbances. What if these disturbances happened? What will happen if the motion of the earth is slower or faster? The first result is disturbances of the temperatures of the earth’s atmosphere due to having greater or smaller doses of sun’s radiation. These changes may increase or decrease the temperature of our environment by some tens of degrees. If these will happen, the water in seas and rivers will be boiled and vanished or frozen. So, the life on the earth will be vanished. Looking at the planets of our solar group, they are slower or faster than the earth. Accordingly, the temperatures of its surfaces are in the order of hundreds of degrees above zero or below zero. So, no life is there. Who adjusts that? In very limited number of words, God expresses miraculously that He is keeping by His Will this neat order. No one may claim that such order is not controlled by unlimited will and power. In many other verses of Quran, God states this fact: Every thing is exactly counted and subjected to His Will:
YUSUFALI: And He hath made subject to you the sun and the moon, both diligently pursuing their courses; and the night and the day hath he (also) made subject to you.
PICKTHAL: And maketh the sun and the moon, constant in their courses, to be of service unto you, and hath made of service unto you the night and the day.
SHAKIR: And He has made subservient to you the sun and the moon pursuing their courses, and He has made subservient to you the night and the day.
The second verse or corner of this portrait from Surat Yassin describes or shows the role of the sun and that is running all the time by itself up to a definite end and in the same time it is it running its planets around it. Where and when and how is it running and going to an end? The answer is directly stated at the end of the verse: That is the decree (or ordinance and determination) of the Exalted in Might, the All-Knowing. Surely; Who can keep the sun in such order and in such specifications and characteristics should be Exalted in Might and All-Knowing. Who can claim that these neat parameters are not done and controlled by the God who revealed these facts in His Miraculous Book? There is a miraculous fact in this verse; the sun is not the fixed center of the universe. It is recently discovered that the sun does as the Earth is doing, they all rotate. Scientists thought in the last century that the sun is the centre of the universe and that it is fixed in size and blocked in its place and that everything is moving around it. Of course the earth rotates around the sun, but the sun rotates also around its own axes and around the axis of its galaxy as was discovered recently. So it is quite correct to say that the Earth is moving in an orbit round the Sun, and also to state that the Sun is also in its orbit. But the orbit of the sun is around the centre of the galaxy. In fact it is believed that if the Sun keeps going in its orbit it would ultimately end in what is known as the solar apex, a sort of position that it would end up in the centre of the galaxy. There is also evidence that the sun will come to an end. The mass of the sun is decreasing all the time due to conversion of millions of tons of its mass each second into energy that is radiated to worm the earth and its other planets. So, there is a specific time in which, according to scientific estimation, the sun will be converted to a sphere of helium, an inert gas, and come into rest as it will loose its ability to convert more mass of hydrogen, its initial content, or radiate more energy. So, running of the sun that is coming to an end is not only her running around the center of the galaxy, but also its radiation and decay of its mass and abilities to continue.
This verse motivates us to look at the mass of the sun and the mass of the earth and the velocity of the earth around the sun. Such parameters determine the orbit of the earth around the sun. The force of gravitation between the sun and the earth is always pulling the earth toward the sun. The earth does not fall into the sun because of the centrifugal effect of due its speeding in its orbital motion around the sun. It is kept steady in its orbit by two balancing forces, the gravitational pull of the sun, and the centrifugal force due to its own speed. If we assume a change of some percentage in any of these parameters; the earth may come closer or farther. In this case, the temperature of the earth will be changed by tens of degrees. The expected result is also ending the life on the earth. Solar energy is created at the core of the sun when two hydrogen atoms are fused into one atom of helium by nuclear fusion of less mass. The difference in the mass is converted to energy that is radiated from the sun. For each second of the solar nuclear fusion process, 700 million tons of hydrogen is converted into the helium. Temperatures at the core of the sun are about 15 million degrees Kelvin. Nowadays scientists are unable to control such fusion reaction to extract similar hydrogen energy as done in the sun as it is out of control up to now. So, such uncontrolled reaction may be applied in the destructive hydrogen pomp. However, the nuclear reaction in the sun has been steadily controlled since 4.5 billion years, the age of the sun, and may continue a similar time. What is expected if the temperature of the core of the sun or the rate of the fusion reaction has been changed by few percents? Similar change in the earth temperature and ending the life on the earth will result. Such temperature of the sun determines the spectral range of its radiation of light and heat. Our sight is designed to see in this spectral range. So, any change of the sun’s temperature will lead to the darkness of earth during sun’s shining as our eyes is not sensitive to any radiation outside the visible range: 0.4 – 0.7 microns. The sight of the scorpions is not designed to see in the spectral range of the sun and feel dark in the day hours. Now, is there any wise man who can think the running of the sun in such order is not created and controlled by the Exalted in Might and the All-Knowing as this verse states clearly.
The third corner of this portrait or the third verse in this paragraph of Quran discusses the moon. Moon is our closest neighbor in the universe. The moon does not give off any of its own light. When the moon "shines" it is actually just reflecting light from the sun. That is why the Quran describes the sun as Glowing filament or lamp that is burning all the times and describes the moon as luminary only as it shines by the effect of another source of its light.
YUSUFALI: Blessed is He Who made constellations in the skies, and placed therein a burning Lamp and a Moon giving light;
PICKTHAL: Blessed be He Who hath placed in the heaven mansions of the stars, and hath placed therein a great burning lamp and a moon giving light!
SHAKIR: Blessed is He Who made the constellations in the heavens and made therein a burning lamp and a shining moon.
YUSUFALI: "'And made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun as a (Glorious burnig) Lamp?
PICKTHAL: And hath made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a burning lamp?
SHAKIR: And made the moon therein a light, and made the sun a lamp?
Some nights, the moon appears as a round globe and others it appears to be a thin slice. In reality, the moon does not change in shape or size and its appearance changes as different parts of it are lighted by the sun. Following an elliptical orbit, the moon travels around the earth at 3600 km per hour. One trip or revolution is 2.25 million km. The moon also travels with the earth as it circles the sun and both look like if they are a house-mate. The moon moves west to east on our. The gravitational pull and the centrifugal force keeps the earth's moon in its orbit around the earth. The moon's revolution around earth may be measured in synodic which is about 29 1/2 days long, and is the period from one new moon to the next new moon. This is the amount of time it takes to revolve around the earth relative to the sun. The lunar day is classified in to two weeks of light and two weeks of darkness. The moon has many phases. During a synodic month we see the moon change from a crescent to a full circle and back. These seemingly changes in shape and size are due to different finely calculated and accurately estimated positions. The moon rises and sets at exact times. With each passing day, the moon rises about 50 minutes later and drops about 12 degrees. By the end of a week, the moon rises at noon and sets at midnight. During the full moon, it rises as the sun sets and sets as the sun rises. During the last quarter, it rises at midnight and sets at noon. Can such angles and positions be done by nature? May the nature compute, estimate, punctuate, reckon, calculate and adjust? Should we believe the following revealed verse from God or not?
YUSUFALI: The sun and the moon follow courses (exactly) computed;
PICKTHAL: The sun and the moon are made punctual.
SHAKIR: The sun and the moon follow a reckoning.
The fourth verse discusses the miracles of God in stabilizing every thing in its decreed orbits as a way of glorifying His Wisdom and Greatness. It states that it is neither allowable to the sun to overtake the moon, nor the night to outstrip the day; and every one should float neatly on or in its own orbit. Really, who look at the sun’s size which is many millions times the size of the earth but it is not allowable for her to overtake the moon from the earth. The Answer is given that each has its decreed orbit and it is not allowed for any thing to disobey the Creator.
One of the Miracles of Quran is that it is kept as revealed to Mohammed up to now recurrently in the hearts of millions of Muslims in addition tto millions of written copies. The greatest Miracle is the Arabic language, or the language of Quran, is still spoken and used as the time of revealing the Quran. So, Muslims can enjoy hearing the miraculous recitation (Tartil) of the Quran, understanding and discovering the new meanings of the Quran according to the advances in sciences. As an example, this fourth verse states that the each of the earth (its day and night), the moon and the sun has its own orbit that floats or swims in it. The original in Quran for “swim is ”ysbhoon.” This word has the same letters of the words:”glorifying” or “swimming.” So, it gives the meaning that each thing is moving by itself as a sign of obedience to God’s orders. In other words, the motion of every thing in the universe is in accordance with God’s Decrees and as an expression of God’s glorifying. The same meaning is found in the following verse:
YUSUFALI: The seven heavens and the earth, and all beings therein, declare His glory: there is not a thing but celebrates His praise; And yet ye understand not how they declare His glory! Verily He is Oft-Forbear, Most Forgiving!
PICKTHAL: The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein praise Him, and there is not a thing but hymneth His praise; but ye understand not their praise. Lo! He is ever Clement, Forgiving.
SHAKIR: The seven heavens declare His glory and the earth (too), and those who are in them; and there is not a single thing but glorifies Him with His praise, but you do not understand their glorification; surely He is Forbearing, Forgiving
Similarly, the sentence “each is in his orbit” is the translation of a sentence of three words of the following Arabic letters “klfyflk”, If you read this sentence from left to right or vice versa, you get the same sentence to express the orbits characteristics of closeness and continuation. As a sign of the neat motion and timing of the mentioned orbits in these verses, we see how the tourists saw each year at 6:25 am in the morning of Feb 22 and October 22 the unique event of the Sun’s rays penetrating the Great Temple all the way to the inner sanctum to illuminate the face of Ramses II. During this time the sun reaches 60 meters inside the temple to announce the beginning of “Shamo ” month, which is the beginning of the harvest season at the ancient Egyptians. This event announces God’s Wisdom and Power in controlling every thing in perfect order through 4000 years since Ramses death and up to now and during the whole life of the earth. So, such creation and ordering cannot be a matter of chance or gaming. But these orbits express God’s unlimited Power, Wisdom and Intelligence according to the following verse:
YUSUFALI: We created not the heavens, the earth, and all between them, merely in (idle) sport. We created them not except for just ends: but most of them do not understand:
PICKTHAL: And We created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, in play. We created them not save with truth; but most of them know not
SHAKIR: And We did not create the heavens and the earth and what is between them in sport. We did not create them both but with the truth, but most of them do not know.
Now, we see how these four miraculous verses of Quran offer a global portrait of the earth, the moon and the sun in a perfect order that cannot be offered by any groups of scientists. Now, can we find a logic answer for the following verse than “NO”?
PICKTHAL: Their messengers said: Can there be doubt concerning Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth?
SHAKIR: Their messengers said: Is there doubt about Allah, the Maker of the heavens and the earth?
And can we deny the God’s statements that the Quran is the Word of God as none can offer a similar Book or sura like Him?
YUSUFALI: Say: "If the whole of mankind and Jinns were to gather together to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support.
PICKTHAL: Say: Verily, though mankind and the jinn should assemble to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce the like thereof though they were helpers one of another.
SHAKIR: Say: If men and jinn should combine together to bring the like of this Quran, they could not bring the like of it, though some of them were aiders of others
YUSUFALI: And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant, then produce a Sura like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (If there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true. But if ye cannot- and of a surety ye cannot- then fear the Fire whose fuel is men and stones,- which is prepared for those who reject Faith.
PICKTHAL: And if ye are in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto Our slave (Muhammad), then produce a surah of the like thereof, and call your witness beside Allah if ye are truthful. : And if ye do it not - and ye can never do it - then guard yourselves against the Fire prepared for disbelievers, whose fuel is of men and stones
SHAKIR: And if you are in doubt as to that which We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a chapter like it and call on your witnesses besides Allah if you are truthful. But if you do (it) not and never shall you do (it), then be on your guard against the fire of which men and stones are the fuel; it is prepared for the unbelievers.