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In Quran: Cause of the Fine Tuning of The Universe

Prof. Dr. Eng. Salama AbdelhadyProfessor of Energy Systems; South Valley University In Quran also; God states that everything in the universe is finely tuned by His Will:04.086 . . . Allah takes account of everything. 013.08 . . . Everything has its measure with Him.065.03 . . . Allah has appointed a measure for all things.

Looking at the way of managing and the fine tuning of such universe; it gives us such steady conditions of pressure, temperature, humidity, and light to matching the environments that suit our life. Can anyone imagine such fine tuning is due to a chance or a mindless nature? We see fine tuning of constant rate of sun radiation that tunes finally the earth’s temperature, wave-lengths of sun’s radiation to fit exactly our vision and the rate of earth spinning that fits exactly the earth’s environments and wind speeds. If we imagine an error of 1 % in sun radiation or day duration the life may be vanished on our planet. So; God’s question will lead to another question: Do you think such fine tuning is due to chance or mindless nature? If not, it should be designed and controlled by the God Who asks us this question. Look at the fine tuning of the inclination of the axis of earth rotation with respect to the plane of its rotation around the sun to draw the wind maps that causes many bio-actions on the earth as the motivation and motion of clouds.Looking to such fine tuning of sun’s radiation to produce a finely tuned quantity of clouds from a finely tuned areas of salt-oceans, 3/5 earths surface, that are converted to a finely tuned quantity of fresh water that suits the earth’s needs from water. Do you imagine the estimation of such finely tuned quantities is done by chance or physical necessity? God in the following verse states that these are His Own Estimation from the moment of start of creation. Who tuned finally such green leaves of plant to absorb the solar energy and then our bodies are tuned finally to recruit this energy for our life.

041.010 He placed therein (the earth) firm hills (to stabilize the earth’s crust and to create the gravitational field above it), and blessed it and designed therein its sustenance (from water, plants, nourishments ) in four Days, alike for (all) who ask;

Looking at the fine tuning of the earth’s gravitational force; it keeps our stability and freedom to move on its surface. Such stability and freedom is available also to all creatures on the earth. However; such tuning is not available on any other planet in the universe but the earth.

031.010: He hath created the heavens without supports that ye can see, and hath cast into the earth settlements (something which attracts or creates the gravity), so that it stabilize your life on it; and He hath dispersed therein all kinds of beasts. And We send down water from the sky and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein.

016.015:
And He has cast into the earth settlements ((something which attracts or creates the gravity), lest it should shake with you (to be unstable); and rivers and roads; that ye may guide yourselves; But such universe is neatly designed like a chain of million links. If any link breaks, we do not have a less optimal universe for life -- we have a universe incapable of sustaining life. So, it takes a great deal more faith to believe in an accidental universe than to believe in an intelligent creator, or God who crafted such a marvelous universe and beautiful place of habitation in planet Earth, and then created life (including human beings) to occupy it. Then He sent His messengers with His Books which tell us His Wisdom.


Looking at the finely tuned constants that are found by scientists in every thing in the universe, these are recorded in the end of this article. Such Fine Tuning constants should have a Cause. Quran Gives us such CAUSE:

The Cause is to give His Creatures His Mercy. So, He loves them and He will be loved, obeyed and worshipped. He gifted the humans special gift; a soul from Him. So, they are gifted the nobleness with respect to all other creatures.051.056 I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship (Love) Me

005.054
O ye who believe! Whoso of you becometh a renegade from his religion, (know that in his stead) Allah will bring a people whom He loveth and who love Him, humble toward believers, stern toward disbelievers, striving in the way of Allah, and fearing not the blame of any blamer. Such is the grace of Allah which He giveth unto whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.

011.119
Except those on whom thy Lord hath bestowed His Mercy: and for this did He create them:

017.070 We have honored the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favors, above a great part of our creation.

So; Look at these finely tuned constants that were recorded by scientists:

Fine Tuning Parameters for the Universe
1.
strong nuclear force constant
if larger: no hydrogen would form; atomic nuclei for most life-essential elements would be unstable; thus, no life chemistry
if smaller: no elements heavier than hydrogen would form: again, no life chemistry
2.
weak nuclear force constant
if larger: too much hydrogen would convert to helium in big bang; hence, stars would convert too much matter into heavy elements making life chemistry impossible
if smaller: too little helium would be produced from big bang; hence, stars would convert too little matter into heavy elements making life chemistry impossible
3.
gravitational force constant
if larger: stars would be too hot and would burn too rapidly and too unevenly for life chemistry
if smaller: stars would be too cool to ignite nuclear fusion; thus, many of the elements needed for life chemistry would never form
4.
electromagnetic force constant
if greater: chemical bonding would be disrupted; elements more massive than boron would be unstable to fission
if lesser: chemical bonding would be insufficient for life chemistry
5.
ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant
if larger: all stars would be at least 40% more massive than the sun; hence, stellar burning would be too brief and too uneven for life support
if smaller: all stars would be at least 20% less massive than the sun, thus incapable of producing heavy elements
6.
ratio of electron to proton mass
if larger: chemical bonding would be insufficient for life chemistry
if smaller: same as above
7.
ratio of number of protons to number of electrons
if larger: electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation
if smaller: same as above
8.
expansion rate of the universe
if larger: no galaxies would form
if smaller: universe would collapse, even before stars formed
9.
entropy level of the universe
if larger: stars would not form within proto-galaxies
if smaller: no proto-galaxies would form
10.
mass density of the universe
if larger: overabundance of deuterium from big bang would cause stars to burn rapidly, too rapidly for life to form
if smaller: insufficient helium from big bang would result in a shortage of heavy elements
11.
velocity of light
if faster: stars would be too luminous for life support if slower: stars would be insufficiently luminous for life support
12.
age of the universe
if older: no solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would exist in the right (for life) part of the galaxy
if younger: solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have formed
13.
initial uniformity of radiation
if more uniform: stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formed
if less uniform: universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty space
14.
average distance between galaxies
if larger: star formation late enough in the history of the universe would be hampered by lack of material
if smaller: gravitational tug-of-wars would destabilize the sun's orbit
15.
density of galaxy cluster
if denser: galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt the sun's orbit
if less dense: star formation late enough in the history of the universe would be hampered by lack of material
16.
average distance between stars
if larger: heavy element density would be too sparse for rocky planets to form
if smaller: planetary orbits would be too unstable for life
17.
fine structure constant (describing the fine-structure splitting of spectral lines) if larger: all stars would be at least 30% less massive than the sun
if larger than 0.06: matter would be unstable in large magnetic fields
if smaller: all stars would be at least 80% more massive than the sun
18.
decay rate of protons
if greater: life would be exterminated by the release of radiation
if smaller: universe would contain insufficient matter for life
19.12
C to 16O nuclear energy level ratio
if larger: universe would contain insufficient oxygen for life
if smaller: universe would contain insufficient carbon for life
20.
ground state energy level for 4He
if larger: universe would contain insufficient carbon and oxygen for life
if smaller: same as above
21.
decay rate of 8Be
if slower: heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions in all the stars
if faster: no element heavier than beryllium would form; thus, no life chemistry
22.
ratio of neutron mass to proton mass
if higher: neutron decay would yield too few neutrons for the formation of many life-essential elements
if lower: neutron decay would produce so many neutrons as to collapse all stars into neutron stars or black holes
23.
initial excess of nucleons over anti-nucleons
if greater: radiation would prohibit planet formation
if lesser: matter would be insufficient for galaxy or star formation
24.
polarity of the water molecule
if greater: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too high for life
if smaller: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too low for life; liquid water would not work as a solvent for life chemistry; ice would not float, and a runaway freeze-up would result
25.
supernovae eruptions
if too close, too frequent, or too late: radiation would exterminate life on the planet
if too distant, too infrequent, or too soon: heavy elements would be too sparse for rocky planets to form
26.
white dwarf binaries
if too few: insufficient fluorine would exist for life chemistry
if too many: planetary orbits would be too unstable for life
if formed too soon: insufficient fluorine production
if formed too late: fluorine would arrive too late for life chemistry
27.
ratio of exotic matter mass to ordinary matter mass
if larger: universe would collapse before solar-type stars could form
if smaller: no galaxies would form
28.
number of effective dimensions in the early universe
if larger: quantum mechanics, gravity, and relativity could not coexist; thus, life would be impossible
if smaller: same result
29.
number of effective dimensions in the present universe
if smaller: electron, planet, and star orbits would become unstable
if larger: same result
30.
mass of the neutrino
if smaller: galaxy clusters, galaxies, and stars would not form
if larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense
31.
big bang ripples
if smaller: galaxies would not form; universe would expand too rapidly
if larger: galaxies/galaxy clusters would be too dense for life; black holes would dominate; universe would collapse before life-site could form
32.
size of the relativistic dilation factor
if smaller: certain life-essential chemical reactions will not function properly
if larger: same result
33.
uncertainty magnitude in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle
if smaller: oxygen transport to body cells would be too small and certain life-essential elements would be unstable
if larger: oxygen transport to body cells would be too great and certain life-essential elements would be unstable
34.
cosmological constant
if larger: universe would expand too quickly to form solar-type stars