By Dr Ahamed Moslem Shaltoot
Translated by Fawzi Al-Shamsi
Revised by Magdy Abd Al-SHafy
The Holly Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) sent, with Alhareth Iben Umair Al-Azdari, a message to Hercules, the ruler of Busra. Nevertheless, the messenger didn’t arrive because that Shurahbeel Iben Amr Alghassani, one of Hercules's princes in Alsham,
killed him in a place called Mu'ta when he saw him. Actually, this was the only murdered messenger of the Holly Prophet Muhammad PBUH. However, the prophet was very angry because of this heinous deed. Therefore, he sent Zaid Iben Haritha with three thousand soldiers under his leadership , in Jamada Alawal in 8.A.H. Prophet Mohummed gave the leader of the army the following instructions :
"If Zaid is killed, Jaffar Iben Abi Talleb will be the leader, and if he is killed, Abdullah will be the leader, and if he is killed, Muslims should choose a leader for them."
However, the Prophet saw off the army and he said: "Invade in the name of Allah and fight in His cause ,don’t hurt the people whom you find in hermitages ,don’t kill a woman or a child or an aged man. Never ever cut a plant or a palm. And don’t destroy a building."
The prophet's instruction to the commander Zaid Ben Haritha Al-kalbi shows: the Islamic magnanimity, noble principles, and the adherence to reform the whole disgrace of human society .
This is because that he asked them not to hurt priests, aged people, patients, women, children, houses and farms. The Islamic wars, which were distinguished by these instructions in the 1st .A.H. lead us to compare between this situation and what we have seen in the wars of the last 1400 years, which destroyed the houses, places of worships, schools and hospitals, as the case is in Afghanistan and Palestine. The Zionists and crusaders were very savage barbarians throughout history ; these noble Islamic principles of wars didn't exist in their wars with Muslims and non-Muslims and even among themselves.
The Islamic army arrived at Ma'an, in south of Syria. At that time, the Romans heard about the Islamic coming and they were will prepared. Their number was between 100,000 and 200,000 soldiers. The Muslims camped two nights in Ma'an thinking of the enemy army that outnumbered them . Then, Abdullah Ben Abi Rauaha stood and said:
"O people, you fear what you went for, the martyrdom . And we don’t fight others using our courage or number; rather we fight by our religion which God gifted us with . Therefore, go to attain either of the two choices : martyrdom , which is better , or victory"
Here, Muslims said " you are right, O Abdullah."
Then, they went to Mu'ta village and the fight was very harsh. At that time, Zaid be Haritha took the flag, as the prophet said, and fought until he met his martyrdom , then the flag went to Jaffar Ben Abi Talleb , who also fought bravely until he met his martyrdom, and finally to Abdullah Ben Abi Rauaha who also fought till he met his martyrdom . After that, Muslims chose Khaled Ben Alwaleed, The Sword of God as prophet Mohummed nicknamed him , to be their leader. Khaled made a very intelligent maneuver and Muslims could go back to their home, whereas Romans were very tired from the battle and they couldn’t even follow the Muslims. The battle lasted seven days, and the number of the Muslims' killed soldiers was 12 whereas Romans lost hundreds of soldiers.
This battle, however, was the first between Muslims and Romans, who were very experienced in wars.
Despite the fact that the enemy outnumbered the Moslem both in number and weapons , This war , launched by Moslems , wasn’t a suicide or even rashness. Rather, it was to pay the price of dignity and honesty, and to raise the voice of Islam between those Romans who persisted in underestimating Islam.
Thus, Romans realized the Islamic high will in fighting and this made them afraid despite their superiority in arms and soldiers.
Abdullah Ben Omar said:" I was in that battle and we searched for Jaffar Ben Abi Talleb, and when we found him we found that he had about ninety stabs in his body". This denotes how high the will of Muslims who fought to death was ; they aspired for one of the two best choices : martyrdom or victory. ----never will we lose this spirit of Jihad as long as we adhere to Quran .
A comment by Feras , the supervisor
There is a great inimitability in the Prophet's speech when he told his companions about the successive martyrdom of the three leaders in Mu'ta. This is clear when he said :
If Zaid is killed, Jaffar Iben Abi Talleb will be the leader, and if he is killed, Abdullah will be the leader, and if he is killed, Muslims should choose a leader for them.
This happened exactly as the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) prophesied . And the question now is: who taught him these unknown things?
He is absolutely God.